Quality assurance and quality control along with proposed work pratices, inspection & test plan :
Our Company firmly believes in Quality and the concepts of Quality Assurance & Quality Control are well understood by us. The important concept of these two terms are furnished below.
Totality of features and characteristics of a product or a service that bear on its ability to satisfy the stated and implied needs.
All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or a service will satisfy given requirement for quality.
The Operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality.
We are following the below mentioned Work Practices to achieve Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the electrical work carried out by us.
Quality Assurance can be mainly attributed to the materials supplied to site and Quality control plan will be for conversion of material supplied to work.
Quality Assurance starts from the ordering of the materials from our Purchase Department. The order to the suppliers will contain the entire specification as indicated in Bill of Quantity and as per the particular specification of the “Tender Document”. The Supplier will be given with strict instructions that the material supplied by the Supplier should be in accordance with the specification. For this, the supplier will be asked to produce necessary Type Test Certificate, Manuals and any other relevant document along with the materials supplied. This will be insisted to all the OEM Manufacturers, whereas in the case of Fabricated items like Switchboards (in Bangalore), the same will be inspected in the Shop Floor at various stages by our Engineers to make sure the quality is maintained by the Fabricator.
After the initial order is given to the various suppliers, final working drawings will be collected from the Consultants/Clients and detailed assessment for each item of work will be made as per the schemes and as per the layout drawings – for example like Cable Schedule, Light Fitting Schedule, MCB DB schedule. Any changes in the schematic drawings of panels and the quantities and charges/amendments will be informed to the Supplier along with a copy to the Clients/Consultants. This is to ensure that there is no additional or excess material supplied as per the requirement and as per the final working drawing.
Regarding the materials supplied to the site, the material will be checked for the quantity mentioned in the Supplier’s invoice.
All the materials received at site will be visually checked for any physical or mechanical damages and for missing or short supply items, the same will be reported to the Office to take necessary action.
The materials received at site will be properly stored and identification tags will be provided before issuing the material for the work. The same will be physically checked and issued.
For all the major equipment supplied by us, necessary factory test certificates, instruction manuals, wherever applicable will be documented and copy of the same along with the final as built drawings will be submitted to the consultants/clients for their records and maintenance.
The Quality Assurance for various materials supplied will be checked as per the following procedure :
Size and colour coding of the wires as per the supplier’s invoice will be checked. Gauge of the wire will be checked. Continuity of the wire coil will be checked before issuing for work.
Light Fittings :
Quantity as mentioned in the Invoice will be physically checked. Cat.Nos. of the light fittings mentioned on each case will be checked and properly stored as per the individual type of light fittings, so that it can be easily taken out for erection. Tubes and lamps will be separately stored. Light fittings will be checked physically for any damage or breakage for taking action for eplacement.
M.V. SWITCHBOARDS/MCB DBs/BBTs :
All DBs Switch Boards will be checked for their sizes/No. of ways as per order and as per BOQ. All the Switch Boards and DBs will be checked for physical correctness. If there is any damage or breakage, the same will be intimated to the Office for necessary corrections.
Fabricated Switch Boards will be thoroughly inspected & tested at the fabricator’s workshop before it is dispatched to the site. For all L.T. Switch Boards, the fabricators general arrangement drawings as per the final schematic drawings issued will be submitted for approval to the Consultant’s / Clients. Any comments indicated in the Approved drawings will be incorporated and it will be resubmitted for final approvals and all these will be documented. The revised final approved drawings will be submitted to the consultants and clients. After the panel boards are fabricated, the final ‘as built’ drawings will be submitted to the consultants and clients for their records.
Safety precautions at construction site
All of us are aware about the direct costs of accidents, but there are indirect or hidden costs of accidents, which can have an adverse effect on productivity. More than the cost, the human life involved, is most concerned. An awareness of this basic fact is essential while implementing an effective prevention programme. Let every construction engineer adopt safety precautions as part of the job. They must practice the safety precautions, till they are accustomed.
Accidents Prevention Programme
The basic function of the management is planning and programming
The ultimate objective of lowering the operational costs and accident reduction should be achieved on construction sites.
The accident prevention programme has to be well planned, effectively monitored to minimize the accidents with responsibility of ensuring safety code at various levels in construction projects.
EHS Manager and Safety Supervisors are responsible for assisting the constructors, in working out a safety programme.
Periodically inspecting all the working spots to detect any flaws in the programme and to monitor the performance of the programme.
Investigating all serious accidents to reinforce the safety programme.
Compiling the accidents statistics.
Site Safety Programme
» Determining a suitable course of action in day to day activities for the effective implementation of the safety programme.
» Meeting regularly, atleast once in a fortnight, to discuss and decide the ways and means to eliminate the factors affecting the safety programme.
» To analyse all the activities of the coming fortnight, identifying the possible hazards and finalizing the precautions to be taken.
» To monitor the performance of the safety programme and suggesting improvements wherever needed.
» Inspecting the site, twice a week, to locate the unsafe working conditions and locations.
» Investigating all accidents and strengthening the safety programme by additional precautions if any, on the basis of accidents investigations
» EHS Manager should inspect the work spot atleast once a day, making on-the-spot corrections of the unsafe acts of the workmen and taking suitable steps to eliminate all the unsafe conditions.
» Planning the requirements for the first aid, fire fighting and safety appliances well in advance and maintaining them in good condition.
» Working out the cost of all the accidents during the month/year.
» Safety supervisors should keep giving the ‘safety Instructions’ to their workmen daily, highlighting the possible hazards in that days work and precautions to be taken by the workers.
» Site supervisors should eliminate all unsafe conditions in their area of the work.
» They should keep the work area neat, clean and free from loose material especially at upper floors.
Site office should have a list of following emergency Telephone Nos.
Fire — 101
Ambulance — 102
Police — 100
Everybody should take active part to ensure all safety precautions.
Personal Protective Kit
» Safety precautions play a vital role in protecting workmen from injury during execution of job.
» Some of the important safety kits are listed below. They must be in good condition.
» Safety Helmets – Use where work is going on at different levels
» Safety belts – Used for workmen working on height, on exterior sides of the building
» Hand gloves – Used for Materials handling, gas cutter, welding machine etc.
» Safety goggles – Used for gas welding, grinding, pavement breaking etc.
» Safety Shoes – For asphalting, cutting hard rock, concreting works etc.
Major Possible Injuries And First Aid
First Aid :
First aid is an immediate and temporary care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness till the treatment from the doctor is made available. It is important for the person giving first aid to know what is to be done at the time of crisis. Improper and careless handling of the injured person may increase the severity of the injury and may even cause a death.
First Aid Kit :
» Dressing cotton
» Packet of cotton wool
» 75mm roller bandage
» General medicines
» Triangular bandage
» Potassium permanganate
» 25mm roller bandage
» Safety pins
» Iodine bottle
Major Possible Injuries :
In construction work the Three Major Causes of injuries are possible where great care is required.
b) Sudden stoppage of respiration
Usually bleeding can be controlled by direct pressure applied to the wound with a sterile dressing or any cloth, on the affected area. Keeping the victim in lying position will control the bleeding to certain extent.
(b) SUDDEN RESPIRATORY BLOCKAGE
In case of electric shock, gas poisoning , suffocation etc., where breathing is stopped, immediate action is necessary. However, mouth to mouth respiration should be started without any loss of time until the victim starts breathing on his own or he is rought to the doctor.
In case of visible fractures and even a fracture suspected, the adjacent joints should be immobilized. If the fracture is accompanied by bleeding, it should be controlled while carrying the victim to the doctor. Care should be taken not to disturb the fractured bone.
CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS
» Insertion of the loose wires in sockets without a plug pin. This is the most common practice, and the cause of most of the Electrical Accidents at construction sites. As the insertion of loose wires is mostly done by the unskilled helpers or carpenters, fitters, etc. the insertion of earthing wire (green wire) lead into live terminal of socket which passes the current directly into the equipment, and ultimately the person holding the equipment gets the shock.
» Avoiding the use of gloves while working on live line.
» Improper joining of the cables and the wires
» Exposed switches
» Switch plug socket units installed in the open area, without any protection from rain. Etc
LIST OF POSSIBLE ACCIDENTS, PRECAUTIONS, AND ACTIONS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE WORK
The preliminary requirements to control the accidents and to active the safety precautions is to know the possibilities of ccidents and the precautionary measures to overcome the same.
This is discussed in the tabular format. List of possible accidents at site
Precautionary measures for various accidents
Immediate actions to be taken in case of accidents
Even though most of the situations leading to accidents are covered, there may be still more which can cause accidents.
Hence priority should be given to all necessary safety precautions to avoid accidents.
It is the duty of all the site staff to remain alert and be sure about the safety precautions to avoid accidents.
If contractors / subcontractors are not obliging then it will be preferable to delay the work on safety account rather than starting any work leading to accidents.
RESPONSIBILITIES IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS
FOR MINOR ACCIDENTS
First aid is an immediate and temporary care given to victim. Inform to the Head Office (Personal Department) and to the contractor. If required may be admitted to the nearby hospital.
FOR MAJOR ACCIDENTS
Firstly, attempt should be made to save the life of victim. Give treatment with first aid box and immediately admit the patient to a nearby hospital. Inform to Head Office (Personal Department)/C.E./Director), contractor and family members of the Victim.
In case of any mishap or fire at constructions sites, inform fire department immediately for rescue purpose.